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Estate Planning with IRA’s and Retirement Plans: Pitfalls and Opportunities

By Jennifer Rossettini, CFP®

If your annual income falls somewhere between $50,000 and $200,000, chances are that more than half of your assets consist of 401(k), 403(b), IRA and/or other retirement plan assets (for purposes of this article, all non-pension retirement plans will be referred to as “IRA’s”). If this statistic is true for you, it is critically important to make sure that the beneficiary designations on your IRA’s are consistent with your overall estate plan. Moreover, as the federal estate tax exemption continues to increase, income tax planning for future generations becomes even more relevant. This article will discuss some of the estate planning pitfalls that go along with estate planning with IRA’s as well as some of the planning opportunities.

As you may be aware, the IRA is an investment vehicle that allows for tax-deferral during your earning years.  In exchange for allowing you to defer the taxes during your earning years, the IRS requires that you begin withdrawing from your IRA when you turn 70 ½. This is the Required Beginning Date (“RBD”). At that time, these Required Minimum Distributions (“RMD’s”) are taxed as ordinary income. When you designate a beneficiary to receive your IRA at your death, that beneficiary can generally choose among three options for taking the distribution: (1) take the whole IRA in a lump sum, in which case the entire lump sum will be taxed as ordinary income to the beneficiary; (2) withdraw from the IRA over a 5-year period, in which case, each withdrawal will be subject to income tax; or (3) take withdrawals from the IRA over the beneficiary’s life expectancy. For greatest tax deferral, the IRA owner should want their beneficiaries to choose the third option. Despite the owner’s wishes, however, improper beneficiary designations could thwart their best-laid plans.

Pitfall Number 1: Failing to Name a Beneficiary or Naming a “Non-Qualified Beneficiary”:

This can happen if the IRA owner fails to name a beneficiary and the plan does not have default beneficiaries, or when the owner names their estate, a charity, a non-qualified trust, or other entity.  In this case, the beneficiary only has limited options. If the IRA owner died before his/her RBD, the beneficiary must take the IRA assets out over a five-year period. If the IRA owner died after his/her RBD, the beneficiary can choose to take distributions over a five-year period or over the remaining life expectancy of the IRA owner.

Potential Solution: Be sure to name individual beneficiaries consistent with your estate plan. For example, if your estate plan requires that your assets be distributed equally to your two children, be sure to name those two children as equal beneficiaries of your IRA.

Pitfall Number 2: Naming your Revocable Living Trust as Beneficiary:

If your estate plan involves the use of a Revocable Living Trust so that assets remain in Trust for your spouse and/or your children after you pass away, many people make the mistake of just naming their Trust as the beneficiary of their IRA.  There are two problems that arise when you name your Trust as beneficiary. First, if the Trust is not a “Qualified Designated Beneficiary Trust,” the Trust will be subject to the less desirable payout options discussed above. Second, even if you have named beneficiaries of various ages, the IRS will use the life expectancy of the oldest beneficiary to determine the proper RMD.

Potential Solution Number 1: Make sure your Trust is a Qualified Designated Beneficiary Trust, which means (1) the Trust is valid under state law; (2) the Trust is irrevocable or becomes irrevocable at the death of the IRA owner; (3) the beneficiaries of the Trust can be identified in the Trust document; and (4) the Trust document is provided to the account administrator by October 31st of the year after the IRA owner’s death.

Potential Solution Number 2: Instead of naming your Trust as beneficiary of your IRA, you could name the individual sub-trusts created therein as the beneficiaries. For example, instead of naming “The John Doe Revocable Trust” as the beneficiary, you could name “The Marital Trust f/b/o Jane Doe under the John Doe Revocable Trust.”

Please keep in mind that estate planning with IRA’s can be complicated and that this article only scratches the surface. As such, we highly recommend that you seek the advice of an experienced estate planning attorney to walk you through your unique situation.

 

Ask Kit Kat – Magic in Cat’s Tongue

Hook Law Center: Kit Kat, what can you tell us about the uniqueness of a cat’s tongue?

Kit Kat: Well, first of all look at this cute little girl, daughter of one of our staff, who just got her very own kitty from a local shelter. The little girl, Allison, has named her kitty, Elliott. It’s a girl kitty, but that’s what her name was, so the family kept it.

Anyway, back to the original subject for this week—the magic in a cat’s tongue. We all know that cat tongues are rough and not smooth like other animals’. However, under a microscope, what the surface of a cat’s tongue is like is revealed by looking at it under a microscope. It may look just a bit scratchy or rough to the unaided eye, but under the microscope it is shown to have tiny, claw-shaped hooks which lay flat, until they come to life in the grooming  process. These tiny hooks are also hollow, so they can carry saliva from the cat’s mouth to reach deep down into the cat’s fur when it is grooming.  The average cat has 300 hooks or papillae, which is the technical name. Interestingly, the length of each papillae is roughly the length of each strand of the cat’s fur, except for Persian cats, which have extremely long hair strands.  All kinds of cats—tigers, lions, cougars, bobcats, leopards, etc. have the same kind of tongue. And it is a virtual cleaning machine!

This discovery was made by Alexis Noel, the lead researcher on a team of   mechanical engineers from Georgia Tech. She thinks the knowledge could lead to inventions for both pets and humans. (Lauran Neergaard,  “The scoop on your feline’s tongue,” The Virginian-Pilot, November 20, 2018, p.1 & 4)

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Hook Law Center encourages you to share this newsletter with anyone who is interested in issues pertaining to the elderly, the disabled and their advocates. The information in this newsletter may be copied and distributed, without charge and without permission, but with appropriate citation to Hook Law Center, P.C. If you are interested in a free subscription to the Hook Law Center News, then please telephone us at 757-399-7506, e-mail us at mail@hooklawcenter.com or fax us at 757-397-1267.

Posted on Thursday, November 29th, 2018. Filed under Senior Law News.

Will People With Disabilities Be Forced Into Nursing Homes?

By Letha Sgritta McDowell, CELA

On November 9, 2018, the Deputy Administrator and Director of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a notice regarding the sunset of certain provisions and protections which allowed married individuals with disabilities to receive services and supports in their homes.  While it is unclear how either the Commonwealth of Virginia or State of North Carolina will implement the guidance issues, the mandate has the potential to cause major upheaval for many of the 3.2 million people nationwide who are receiving services and supports in their home.[i]

States which participate in the federal Medicaid plan receive funding from the federal government as well as funding which is included as part of their state budget.  Participating states must offer certain programs which have certain eligibility requirements.  These programs are often referred to as entitlement programs– an example of which is the Medicaid program which pays for nursing home costs for some individuals.  A Medicaid waiver program is one in which the federal government waives the rules that usually apply to Medicaid programs, but for which the federal government still provides some funding.  Conceptually, the waiver programs allow states to try certain programs to expand coverage, reduce costs, or improve care.

One series of waiver programs are those which are aimed at assisting persons with disabilities of any age needing long-term services and supports in the community (i.e. home care).  The waiver programs allowed states to offer long-term care services in a home-based setting which ideally reduced state costs and improved quality of life for those individuals by offering and alternative to nursing home placement.

While, by definition, waiver programs authorize the waiving of certain eligibility rules, in 2014 Congress mandated that certain rules protecting married couples be applied to married couples when one was applying for a waiver.  The resulting mandate allowed a spouse not needing care to retain certain income and assets in the same manner as if the spouse needing care was entering a nursing facility, but without the resulting disruptive move.  In many instances, the financial protection for the spouse not needing care, along with the waiver program, was the only way to avoid a move into a nursing home.

The 2014 mandate for spousal protections was only extended through the end of 2018.  Therefore, beginning on January 1, 2019, states are no longer required to distinguish between an institutionalized spouse (spouse needing care) and a community spouse for purposes of the waiver programs.  The directive issued by CMS states that the reevaluation of all married couples should begin on January 1, 2019.  Should the income or assets of a spouse not needing care be considered upon re-evaluation, many married couples needing services and supports may find themselves forced into a nursing facility.

While the CMS mandate does state that re-evaluation should begin in January, the mandate also acknowledges that states will have the option to continue to allow for the protection of the spouse.  At this time, it is not clear what states may choose regarding this.  State budgets have been squeezed for quite some time and the practical impact of this may temporarily reduce spending. However, long term, the election not to provide protections for the spouse without a care need will likely result in more people with disabilities needing care in an institutional setting which ultimately will have a greater impact on state budgets.

A number of advocacy organizations are working on a bi-partisan solution to this potentially major problem; however, it is difficult to predict whether Congress will act prior to the end of the year.  Until a solution is passed, people with disabilities receiving these services should carefully review any notifications received regarding their services and be prepared for advocacy if necessary.

[i] https://www.kff.org/report-section/medicaid-home-and-community-based-services-results-from-a-50-state-survey-of-enrollment-spending-and-program-policies-report/

 

Kit KatAsk Kit Kat – End to Greyhound Racing in Florida

Hook Law Center: Kit Kat, what can you tell us about the results of the Florida election and Amendment 13, which proposed outlawing greyhound racing in Florida?

Kit Kat: Well, on November 6, 2018, 67% of the voters in Florida overwhelmingly approved Amendment 13 which will shut down the greyhound racing industry there as of January 2021. This will put a huge dent in the greyhound racing industry nationwide, since 11 of the 17 active dog tracks in the United States operate in Florida. Dog racing has long been criticized by opponents as being extremely cruel. Dogs typically race for 2 years, and then are discarded like throwaways. Even when they are used for racing, they can be kept in cramped quarters, and let out to exercise infrequently.

The success of Amendment 13 was the result of a lot of hard work. Groups like GREY2KUSA and the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) mobilized support, and the effort paid off. Kitty Block, acting president and CEO of HSUS commented afterwards, “ We are so grateful to the volunteers, campaign members, coalition partners, contributors and endorsers who came together in support of this historic effort to end the cruelty of greyhound racing.”

The next step is to find homes for the approximately 6,000 dogs who will need to find new homes. Adopt-a-Greyhound.org is one group who is leading the way in this effort. According to them, greyhounds make great pets. They’re used to being around lots of different people, having been handled by vets, trainers, and strangers. Also, they are easy-going, and don’t have the killer instinct. They are trained to chase a mechanical lure, but in their spare time, can be quite lethargic. If you are interested in adopting an adult greyhound, contact them or the HSUS.

(Cindy Boren, “A greyhound racing ban in Florida means thousands of dogs will need new homes,” The Washington Post, November 8, 2018)

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Distribution of This Newsletter

Hook Law Center encourages you to share this newsletter with anyone who is interested in issues pertaining to the elderly, the disabled and their advocates. The information in this newsletter may be copied and distributed, without charge and without permission, but with appropriate citation to Hook Law Center, P.C. If you are interested in a free subscription to the Hook Law Center News, then please telephone us at 757-399-7506, e-mail us at mail@hooklawcenter.com or fax us at 757-397-1267.

Posted on Monday, November 26th, 2018. Filed under Senior Law News.

Working Grandparents Raising Grandchildren May Qualify for EITC

By Amanda L. Richter, CPA

Grandparents who work and raise dependent grandchildren may be eligible for the earned income tax credit (“EITC”), which is a refundable tax credit, even if the grandparent is 65 years of age or older. This means that those who qualify and claim the credit could pay less federal tax or even receive a tax refund. To qualify, the grandchild must meet the dependency and qualifying child requirements. These requirements are the same for parents claiming the EITC.

Here are some of the basics:

To claim your grandchild as a dependent, the child must be 18 years or younger or a student under 24 years of age as of the end of the year. If the child is permanently and completely disabled, there is no age limit.

In addition, a qualifying child must live with you for more than half of the year and must be your (1) child or stepchild (or descendants), (2) brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister (or their descendants), or (3) eligible foster children.

If your grandchild meets the above requirements, you may qualify for the credit if your income does not exceed the following amounts and have investment income of less than $3,450:

Filing Status Income Limit for 1 Child Income Limit for 2 Children Income Limit for 3 + children
Single/Head of Household $40,320 $45,802 $49,194
Married filing joint $46,010 $51,492 $54,884

 

The amount of the EITC varies by family size, for instance if you have three or more qualifying dependents, the maximum EITC for 2018 is $6,431. Families with two qualifying dependents have a $5,716 maximum credit and one qualifying dependent has a maximum credit of $3,461.

Be aware that by law, the IRS cannot issue refunds before mid-February for tax returns that claim the EITC or the additional child tax credit. The law requires the IRS to hold the entire refund – even the portion not associated with the EITC.

Please call our office at 757-399-7506 if you wish to discuss these rules further as they apply to your situation.

Kit KatAsk Kit Kat – Llamas & Flu

Hook Law Center: Kit Kat, what can you tell us about llamas and what they have to do with the flu?

Kit Kat: Well, it turns out that llamas are actually contributing to a new type of flu vaccine. It’s still in the preliminary stages, but the research sounds quite promising. Apparently, what is unique about llamas is that they make “an array of immune system antibodies so tiny they can fit into crevices on the surface of an invading virus,” according to Melissa Healy, a writer from the Los Angeles Times, who wrote an article on the subject. This capability is critical to developing a nasal flu vaccine which may have the added benefit of being administered only once in a lifetime! Who knew the humble llama had such capability to help humans?

Leading the way in this research is the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA. The Scripps study has international participation and partial funding from the National Institutes of Health. What the scientists there are attempting to do is design a universal vaccine against the flu. If such a thing is possible, it will no longer be necessary to design a new flu shot every season to target a specific strain. So, the scientists vaccinated the llamas to fight several types of A and B strains of flu. Next, they extracted blood samples from the llamas which contained antibodies their bodies had developed to fight the flu. They found four extremely small antibodies, which had the ability to destroy many different types of flu. They dubbed these “nanobodies.” Then, here is where the scientists got creative. They realized that it might be difficult to transfer these nanobodies to humans, so they developed a gene delivery system to transfer the nanobodies to humans. This is complicated stuff, so more trials will have to be conducted on other animals and in humans, but the process appears to be sound and shows great promise. Stay tuned for further updates on this fascinating subject. (Melissa Healy, “Llamas may be  key to flu vaccine,” The Virginian-Pilot, November 3, 2018, p.6)

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Distribution of This Newsletter

Hook Law Center encourages you to share this newsletter with anyone who is interested in issues pertaining to the elderly, the disabled and their advocates. The information in this newsletter may be copied and distributed, without charge and without permission, but with appropriate citation to Hook Law Center, P.C. If you are interested in a free subscription to the Hook Law Center News, then please telephone us at 757-399-7506, e-mail us at mail@hooklawcenter.com or fax us at 757-397-1267.

Posted on Monday, November 19th, 2018. Filed under Senior Law News.

Beware of Arbitration Clauses in Nursing Home Admission Contracts

By Jennifer Rossettini, CFP®

A recent Court decision out of West Virginia has many trial lawyers concerned about nursing homes being able to enforce the arbitration clause in an admission contract, despite the fact that the person who signs the admission contract, usually an agent under a Power of Attorney, may not have the authority to waive a jury trial.

In the case of AMFM LLC v. Shanklin on behalf of Est. of Nelson, Ms.Shanklin, who was Ms. Nelson’s successor agent under a Power of Attorney, signed nursing home admission documents, including an arbitration agreement, on behalf of Ms. Nelson. After Ms. Nelson passed away, Ms.Shanklin, on behalf of Ms. Nelson’s estate, filed suit against the nursing home. The nursing home moved to dismiss the case from court and compel arbitration based on the arbitration agreement that Ms.Shanklin signed on Ms. Nelson’s behalf. Ms.Shanklin argued that the arbitration agreement was invalid, because she did not have the authority as a “successor” agent to sign the arbitration agreement. The West Virginia Supreme Court found that, under Section 119 of the state’s Uniform Power of Attorney Act, the nursing home properly relied on the Power of Attorney presented by Ms.Shanklin because it was without actual knowledge (1) that the Power of Attorney was void, invalid or terminated; (2) that Ms.Shanklin’s authority was void, invalid or terminated; or (3) that Ms.Shanklin was exceeding or improperly exercising her authority. The end result was that the court dismissed the case, and the parties were compelled to engage in arbitration, instead of a jury trial, pursuant to the arbitration agreement.

A similar provision is found in Virginia’s Uniform Power of Attorney Act at §64.2-1617(B) of the Virginia Code and reads as follows:

“A person that in good faith accepts an acknowledged power of attorney that has been signed in accordance with § 64.2-1603 without actual knowledge that the power of attorney is void, invalid, or terminated, that the purported agent’s authority is void, invalid, or terminated, or that the agent is exceeding or improperly exercising the agent’s authority may rely upon the power of attorney as if the power of attorney were genuine, valid, and still in effect, the agent’s authority were genuine, valid, and still in effect, and the agent had not exceeded and had properly exercised the authority…”(emphasis added).

In light of these rules, how can an agent under a Power of Attorney make sure that they are not binding their loved one/principal to arbitration when filling out those nursing home admission forms?  According to our good friend and personal injury attorney, Carlton F. Bennett, Esq., a relatively simple solution is to be sure to cross out the arbitration clauses when filling out the paperwork. Another solution is to put the nursing home on notice that the agent DOES NOT in fact have the authority to agree to arbitration by including such language in the Power of Attorney document. We encourage all of our readers to review their Power of Attorney documents to make sure arbitration authority is specifically excluded.

Kit KatAsk Kit Kat – Protecting Whales

Hook Law Center: Kit Kat, what you can tell us about what the Navy is doing to protect endangered whales off the East Coast of the United States?

Kit Kat: Well, this is interesting, and the Navy should be commended for taking these steps. What the Navy is trying to do is help save the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Back in the 1890s, the right whale was plentiful. It roamed from New England, where it fed and mated in the warmer months, to Florida where it had its young in the winter. Now the National Marine Fisheries Service estimates there are only 450 left. The right whale is not one of the more glamorous whales—it’s dark in color, has no dorsal fin, and has raised patches of rough skin on top of their heads.

What the Navy has decided to do is limit their use of sonar in the entire area the right whale frequents and limit explosions in the same areas. This represents an expansion of protected areas, so much more area is included. Sonar, especially, could be considered as a type of noise pollution. Their delicate hearing cannot take the subtle (to our ears) sonar pings. It interferes with their whale-to whale-communication, which in turn, affects their behavior. In the Jacksonville, FL area, for example, they will not conduct shock trials on ships based there Nov.15-April 15, which is calving season. Shock trials are done on new ships to test their capability to withstand underwater explosions. The Navy, will also alert any ships, even commercial ones, if they happen to see a right whale in a certain location, so that speed can be reduced in order to lessen the chance of a possible collision and to reduce undesirable noise. Navy vessels based in Hampton Roads don’t normally interfere with the right whale, because they train in much deeper water as a matter of course, which are beyond the normal migration pattern of the whale.

The Navy will also alter some of its practices in the certain areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to protect the Bryde’s  whale. They are even more endangered than the right whale—only 100 remain. There they will limit the use of explosives, except during mine warfare  training. It is hoped these efforts will help both types of whales make a gradual comeback. The Navy should be applauded for being respectful of their seafaring neighbors and fellow mammals! (Brock Vergakis, “Navy to limit sonar; explosions in more areas off East Coast to protect endangered whales,” The Virginian-Pilot, November 2, 2018, p.1 &4)

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Hook Law Center encourages you to share this newsletter with anyone who is interested in issues pertaining to the elderly, the disabled and their advocates. The information in this newsletter may be copied and distributed, without charge and without permission, but with appropriate citation to Hook Law Center, P.C. If you are interested in a free subscription to the Hook Law Center News, then please telephone us at 757-399-7506, e-mail us at mail@hooklawcenter.com or fax us at 757-397-1267.

Posted on Friday, November 9th, 2018. Filed under Senior Law News.

Purchasing a Pre-Paid Funeral Plan is An Important Part of a Well-Rounded Estate Plan

By Emily Martin, Esq.

As you approach retirement, it is always a good idea to plan for your future, including developing a plan for what will happen when you pass away. One way to make things easier for your children and loved ones after you’re gone is to purchase a pre-paid funeral plan. This can include buying your grave plot (including closing and opening of the grave, gravestone, and any engravings that you may want), purchasing your coffin, paying for funeral home expenses, or pre-paying for cremation. Because the cost of purchasing a pre-paid funeral plan doubles every five to ten years, it is always a good idea to purchase a plan sooner rather than later. While taking care of all of this before you pass away can be a great way to take some of the burden off of your loved ones, you need to make sure that you purchase a plan that will endure beyond your lifetime, so that it will still be available after you pass away. Below are a few tips that will help steer you in the right direction:

Compare plans before you decide. According to the National Funeral Directors Association, the average cost of a funeral is $6,500 – not including extra expenses such as flowers, obituaries, and cemetery costs. What most people don’t realize is that they are not required to buy the first package the funeral director quotes them. In fact, the Federal Trade Commission requires funeral directors to provide itemized prices for goods and services. This allows you to choose what you need the most. Another good tip – you don’t have to buy every service from one funeral home. Funeral providers are not legally permitted to refuse to handle a coffin you bought elsewhere, nor can they charge an extra fee for handling a coffin they did not sell you.

Understand how your funeral plan affects your eligibility for public benefits. In Virginia, prepaid burial contracts are not considered a countable asset for Medicaid eligibility purposes as long as the burial contract is irrevocable. Purchasing a prepaid burial contract is often an important strategy to implement when planning to protect assets when you or a loved one is preparing to enter a nursing home or needs in-home care and may need to apply for Medicaid. When purchasing this type of prepaid funeral plan, it is important to notify the funeral home that you intend to purchase a Medicaid-compliant plan. It is also vital that you seek the advice of an experienced elder law attorney who will be able to explain how this type of plan works with your overall strategy to protect your assets from being exhausted in the event that you need to apply for Medicaid.

Know what will happen to your money. If you decide to pay the entire cost of your funeral plan up front rather than in installments, make sure you find out where your funds are placed and whether the funeral home will place your funds in a trust account, where it can be kept until it is needed. While the funeral home is required to disclose this information, many people fail to ask where their money is kept.

Ask about refunds and cancellations. One thing many people don’t realize is that funeral homes are not always required to give you a full refund if you cancel your plan. Read your contract carefully to learn what circumstances allow you to cancel the contract and how much money you’ll be able to recoup if you do cancel. Another good question to ask is whether the plan is transferable to a different funeral home in the event that you relocate to a different area. Finally, make sure your contract spells out what will happen if the funeral home goes out of business or comes under new ownership.

Make sure your wishes are clear to your family and loved ones. While thinking about and making plans for your death is not pleasant, it is an important step to take in order to make sure a plan is in place for when you pass away. Many people have specific wishes with regard to their funeral and death, including whether they would like to be an organ donor or whether they prefer to be buried or cremated. It is important to document these wishes, so that your loved ones are able to be sure they are doing what you would have wanted them to do. Making sure that you have an advance medical directive, in which you document your wishes for end-of-life care among other wishes, is an important part of this process. When drafting this document, which is an essential part of a well-rounded estate plan, it is important to seek the advice of an experienced estate planning attorney such as the attorneys at Hook Law Center.

Kit KatAsk Kit Kat – Animals and Workers’ Compensation

Hook Law Center: Kit Kat, what can you tell us about people who get bitten or injured through contact with an animal, and how they may or may not qualify for workers’ compensation.

Kit Kat: Well, this is a complicated issue, but I will attempt to shed some light on some of the factors which affect eligibility for workers’ compensation. Of course, this is coming from a non-lawyer, so I want to make that clear from the start. However, from my reading, this is what I have learned. In Virginia, the decision for eligibility seems to be rather narrow. The risk of a detrimental encounter with an animal must be above the general risk to the public. So, perhaps these two examples will clarify the critical issue. In the case of a carpet installer who was bitten by a snake while on the driveway of a property which had several wood piles along the sides of the driveway, workers’ compensation damages were not awarded to the carpet installer. The judge did not feel the particular house in question had an increased risk of exposure to snakes, nor did he feel that it was common knowledge that snakes inhabit wood piles. In the case of a pet store employee who was bitten by a spider, the opposite occurred. The judge, in that case, ruled in favor of the employee, because the judge ruled that the employee’s work exposed him to an unusual risk.

So you can see that each fact situation is extremely important. The field is an extremely interesting one with many, almost humorous (to the outside observer) situations. One more story to pique your interest. This is called “The Cat on Pizza Box.” In this case, a warehouse employee was bitten by a cat who was sitting on top of a pizza box. The employee went to get a piece of pizza from the box, and when he approached, the cat bit him. The warehouse was not well sealed, and there were many openings for animals like cats, snakes, birds, and even a possum had entered in the past. Because of the unusual situation where the warehouse was not well maintained which created an unsafe work setting, the employee prevailed, and he was awarded workmen’s compensation.

To read more about this fascinating subject, go to Commissioner Wesley G. Marshall’s article entitled “Bites, Nips, and Stings, Animal Encounters, “Arising Out of,” and Workers’ Compensation,” The Virginia Lawyer, October 2018, p.34-37.

Upcoming Seminars

Distribution of This Newsletter

Hook Law Center encourages you to share this newsletter with anyone who is interested in issues pertaining to the elderly, the disabled and their advocates. The information in this newsletter may be copied and distributed, without charge and without permission, but with appropriate citation to Hook Law Center, P.C. If you are interested in a free subscription to the Hook Law Center News, then please telephone us at 757-399-7506, e-mail us at mail@hooklawcenter.com or fax us at 757-397-1267.

Posted on Monday, November 5th, 2018. Filed under Senior Law News.
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